Pradesh is a state in northern India. Its city of Agra is home to the
iconic Taj Mahal monument, a colossal, domed, white-marble mausoleum
honouring the wife of 17th-century Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Nearby are
the red-brick walls of Agra Fort, a fortified palace dating to the 16th
and 17th centuries. Capital Lucknow has Muslim memorial shrines Bara
Imambara and calligraphy-adorned Chota Imambara.
Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 square kilometres
(93,935 sq mi), is India’s fourth largest state in terms of land area.
It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an
international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the
north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. The larger Gangetic Plain
region is in the north; it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab
, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai
. The smaller Vindhya Range
and plateau region is in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar
tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass
and thick forests interspersed with marshes
hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh
since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic
dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic
's settlement, near Pratapgarh
from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep,
and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and
gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation
and Harappa Culture
to the Vedic period
and extending into the Iron Age
Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons.
The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March
and May and the monsoon season between June and September. Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0 °C and 50 °C in parts of the state. The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid.
The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of
the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. Primarily a summer phenomenon, the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian monsoon
is the major bearer of rain in most parts of state. It is the
south-west monsoon which brings most of the rain here, although rain due
to the western disturbances
and north-east monsoon also contribute small quantities towards the overall precipitation of the state.